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    3. 雅思小作文各題型技能總結

      所屬專題:雅思考試  來源:無憂機經預測    要點:雅思寫作技能  
      編輯點評: 雅思作文Task 1受圖表內容的限制,遣詞造句的要求非常有限。下面小編總結了雅思小作文線圖題、柱形圖題、餅圖題、表格題以及流程圖等的寫作總結!希望可以對大家的考試有幫助!

      線圖、柱狀圖、餅圖,表格題

      1.介紹段introduction

      介紹段內容幾乎完全不用創新,就是對題目文字部分的第二段做改寫,paraphrase the rubric。所謂改寫,要么換詞,要么換句式。

      例如:(I4-100)
      The charts below give information about travel to and from the UK and most popular countries for UK residents to visit.

      換詞

      (1) 圖 The charts
      圖:chart, graph(雅思寫作中完全等價,無差別)
      線:line / curve chart
      柱圖:bar / column graph
      餅:pie chart
      表:table / statistics / figures

      (2) 動詞“表明”give information about
             介紹段是客觀描述,用一般現在時態,give information about雖然在這篇作文中最好不再用,但是informal learning,隨手學到的東東,留作其它文章再用。替換的詞語和結構很多,比如我常用的show /illustrate / demonstrate/compare,大家也可以選幾個自己喜歡并且拼寫準確的形成風格,年輕時多嘗試,年紀大了就要形成風格啦,三個就夠,多了白搭,還是那句話,博大不如精深。

      第二段其余部分的替換因題而異,比如
      travel換成visit,
      the UK換成Britain(注意不是England,英格蘭只是Britain的一部分),
      popular換成fashionable,
      country換成nation,
      UK residents to visit換成UK tourists。

      不過隨著練習作文數量的增加,你會驚喜的發現,雅思圖表作文,連描述的對象都是類似的。

      最后要注意點細節,原文的“below”應省略,因為答題紙上沒有圖;而第二副圖上標注的1999年,可以補充進介紹段。

      換句

      (1)并列句
             The line chart shows that … and the bar graph illustrates that …(分別描述兩幅圖,形成風格哦,第一幅圖用chart,第二副圖用graph,第一幅圖shows,第二副圖illustrates,也許你寫的所有文章都類似,但考官只有機會欣賞一篇啊。)

      (2)被動語態
             … is revealed in the line chart and … is indicated in the bar graph.
      One possible answer:
            The line chart reveals visits to and from Britain and the bar graph indicates most fashionable nations for UK tourists in 1999.

      2.主體段body

      過渡:
      段首過渡詞(1個)
      信息出處:
      According to the line chart,
      As is shown in the line chart,
      The line chart shows that …

      表示邏輯:
      in contrast等等
      段內過渡詞(1-2個)
      順承:also, besides, in addition
      轉折:however, in contrast
      其它:meanwhile / in the same time, similarly, in particular

      簡單線圖

      趨勢(包括升降速度):
      The visits increased quickly from about 12 to 53 million from 1979 to 1999.
      There was an increase in the visits from about 12 to 53 million from 1979 to 1999.
      An increase in the visits can be seen from about 12 to 53 million from 1979 to 1999.

      (1)主體:(第二段或圖例中有明示)

      同義詞 travel
      The travel increased quickly from about 12 to 53 million from 1979 to 1999.

      代詞 they
      The visits increased quickly from about 12 to 53 million from 1979 to 1999. In particular, they increased very rapidly from 1985 to 1988.

      線 line:主要用于不理解圖線所代表內容的情況。

      the thin(細線) / thick(粗線) / broken(虛線) / dotted(點線) line
      The thin line, which represents visits by UK residents, increased from about 12 to 53 million from 1979 to 1999.

      (2)增加/減少:動詞

      increase / decrease, rise/drop(可做名詞)
      go up / come down
      climb / slide
      ascend / decline
      rocket /plunge(暴增/暴減)

      過去的圖表用一般過去時;一天24小時的圖表用一般現在時。
      增加/減少:名詞
      a sharp / slow / great / slight increase
      an upward / rising / increasing tendency
      a downward / falling / decreasing trend

      (3)升降速度/幅度(去掉-ly就是形容詞)
      快:quickly / rapidly / swiftly
      慢:slowly / gradually / steadily
      大:greatly / vastly / considerably / substantially
      小:slightly / marginally / minutely

      數字副詞:
      about / around / roughly / more or less 12 million

      (4)數字單位用單數
      12 million而不是12 millions

      (5)時間
      from … to … / between … and …
      during the period from … to … / between … and … / starting from ….

      (6)補充動詞
      keep / remain / maintain unchanged / constant / stable(保持不變)
      fluctuate upward / downward(波動向上/向下)
      double / triple / quadruple(2/3/4倍)

      A possible answer:
             According to the line chart, visits abroad by UK residents increased from about 12 to 57 million from 1979 to 1999. Similarly, overseas travelers to Britain went up from about 10 to 27 million. It is obvious that UK tourists were more and climbed faster than overseas ones during the period.

      復雜線圖

      峰值:peak (v. & n.), summit (v. & n.), highest point
      谷值:touch the bottom (v.), nadir (n.), lowest point
      穩定時期:plateau (n.高原), lower stationary phase (低穩時期)

      A possible answer:
             According to the curve chart, daily electricity need is higher in winter (38,000 units on average) than in summer (18,000 units on average). In winter, electricity consumption peaks at 2:00 am and 10:00 pm while it touches the bottom at 0:00 am and 8:00 am. On the other hand, in summer, it summits at 2:00 pm and 11:00 pm, but has a nadir at 9:00 am and a lower stationary phase from 4:00 pm to 9:00 pm.

      簡單柱圖

      A possible answer:
             The bar graph demonstrates that the most UK visitors went to France and Spain, which were 11.0 and 9.5 million. Also, many British travelers were attracted by the USA (4.0 million), Greece (3.5 million) and Turkey (2.0 million).

      復雜柱圖
      比較:
             90% of those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men, compared with only 10% of women.

             More women held undergraduate diplomas (70%) and marginally more women reached degree level (55%).

             Men with postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered their female counterparts (70% and 30% respectively).(摘自《劍橋雅思4》)

      餅圖

      無非是兩個表達的組合“占”和百分比。
      “占”:
      Occupy
      Account for

      百分比:
      A small percentage of … (X%)
      A quarter of …
      The minority of … (X%)(小部分)
      Half of …
      The majority of … (X%)
      Most of … (X%)
      One-fifth of …

      A possible answer:
      The pie graph demonstrates that heating rooms and water occupies the majority of electricity consumption (52.5%). Then, 17.5% of the electricity demand is shared by ovens, kettles and washing machines. Lighting, TV, radio and vacuum cleaners, food mixers, electric tools are responsible for the rest, with 15% each.

      表格

      數字引入:圖表引用數字的三種主要方法

      分詞短語:
      On average, 11% of all households, comprising almost two million people, were in this position.

      括號:
      Couples generally tended to be better off, with lower poverty levels for couples without children (7%) than those with children (12%).

      介詞短語:
      However, those consisting of only one parent or a single adult had almost double this proportion of poor people, with 21% and 19% respectively.

      詞數填充Word filler :
      這些表達沒有實際意義,考試的時候可以填充詞數。

      It is noticeable that …
      It is easy to see that …
      It is obvious that …

      3.比較段comparison / 結論段conclusion:

      比較段:
      內容無非是數據關聯或者特征關聯兩種可能。

      What is also worth mentioning is that … if the two diagrams are considered as a whole.

      A possible answer:
      What is also worth mentioning is that almost 40% UK tourists selected France and Spain in 1999, if the two diagrams are considered as a whole.

      單圖結論段:
      Overall, the table/chart/graph/diagram suggests that …

      A possible answer:
      Overall, the table suggests that households of single adults and those with children were more likely to be living in poverty than those consisting of couples.(摘自《劍橋雅思4》)

      流程圖/示意圖/地圖

      介紹段:
      The flow chart / diagram / map illustrates … The whole procedure can be divided into … stages.

      主體段:
      一般過渡:時間、順序、目的

      時間:to begin with, next, then, later, finally; at the same time / simultaneously

      順序:the first stage involves … / in the second stage / in the third stage / in the last stage

      目的:
      in order to / in order that; so as to / so that

      sample:
      According to the diagram, the first step of obtaining water outdoors is to find a hole with green plants on the bottom. Next, remove the green plants on the middle of the bottom and put a container there. Then, cover the hole with a plastic sheet and place some stones on the edge of it to secure its position. Finally, a third stone is laid on the middle of the plastic sheet so that the middle part is also the lowest part.

      特殊過渡:狀語從句when, where…

      When the sun shines on the green plants in the hole, water evaporates from these plants. The vapor rises up and then cools down to form water drops under the plastic sheet. Whenthere is more and more water, it flows along the sheet to accumulate under the lowest part.Finally, water falls down into the container directly under the middle stone

      詞語多樣化:
      accumulate / gather / collect / obtain

      詞語具體化:
      水蒸氣vapor和蒸發evaporate這樣的詞并不容易,考試的時候可以用具體的方式加以規避:

      The water turns into gas, rises and finally turns into liquid again and gathers under the sheet of plastic.

      常用詞匯和表達

      1、趨勢類詞匯

      上升動詞類:
      increase, go up, rise up, grow up, jump up, surge, shoot up, keep an upward tendency

      下降動詞類:
      decrease, go down, decline, fall down, drop, sink, dip, keep a downward tendency

      波動動詞類:
      fluctuate

      持平動詞類:
      remain the same, stabilize, remain stable, remain constant

      修飾動詞的副詞:
      slightly 輕微地,
      slowly 緩慢地,
      gradually 逐漸地,
      steadily 穩定地,
      rapidly 迅速地,
      moderately 溫和地, 輕微地,
      significantly 明顯地,
      sharply 明顯地,
      dramatically急劇地,
      drastically 急劇地

      上升名詞類:
      increase, rise, growth, jump, surge

      下降名詞類:
      decrease, decline, fall, reduction, drop

      波動名詞類:
      fluctuation

      修飾名詞的形容詞:
      slight, slow, gradual, steady, rapid, moderate, significant, sharp, dramatic, drastic

      2、極值類詞匯和表達

      最高點:
      reach the peak/top/highest point
      Increase to the peak/top/highest point(所有上升類的動詞都可以替換掉increase)

      最低點:
      reach the bottom/lowest point
      drop to the bottom/lowest point(所有下降類的動詞都可以替換掉drop)

      占的最多:
      occupy/make up/take up/account for the largest proportion/number/percentage of …

      占的最少:
      occupy/make up/take up/account for the smallest proportion/number/percentage of…

      3、倍數的表達方式

      Double 是兩倍/大一倍
      Increase/decrease three times 增長/減少了三倍

      4、大約的表達方式

      About/around + 數字
      數字 + or so
      Approximately + 數字

      5、常用的小作文的趨勢句式表達

      句式一:
      變化主體/圖畫中主體+趨勢動詞+副詞+時間區間
      Eg: The number of aged people over 65 increased significantly from 1940-2000。
      The number of aged people over 65 dropped slightly from 1960-1980。
      The number of aged people over 65 fluctuated between 1 million and 1.2 million from 1940-1950。
      The number of aged people over 65 remained stable from 1930-1940。

      句式二:
      There be + 形容詞 + 表示趨勢的名詞 + in+ 變化的主體+ 時間區間

      Eg:
      There was an significant increase in the number of aged people over 65 from 1940-2000。

      There was a slight decline in the number of aged people over 65 from 1960-1980。

      There was a fluctuation between 1 million and 1.2 million from 1940-1950。 

      希望上述總結對你有幫助!

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